Due to a persisting lack of interest in gender issues, the mobility services are not designed with a gender-inclusive approach. Literature confirms that in Europe, women use public transport more than men. This is mostly due to the economic gap resulting from women’s primary care role and the impact this has on employment and socio-economic conditions.  

Women as passengers of public transport have diverse needs regarding safety, security and comfort. Certain transit environments are rather avoided and frequently travel patterns change, in order to protect their own safety. Studies confirm that the majority of women have been exposed to different degrees of sexual harassment, other forms of unwelcome behaviour or ultimately physical aggression while using public transport services. This causes economic and social harm, thus inequality.  

Women’s mobility choices are more complex, often related to carrying luggage or accompanying other people (children, PRMs, elders).  

Other differences concern, for example, the value given to travelling time: when possible it is used to perform small tasks and if under pressure, journeys can be considered as preparation time or used to organize personal life. As final consideration, for employed women, as for all people going to work, appearance is crucial: wearing business suites or heels can prevent taking in consideration active mobility as an option.  

To this day, improving mobility is often equated with improving automobility – not the mobility of all people. These are issues INDIMO wants to address. In the INDIMO project work-life balance questions will be considered from a gender perspective, including cross-barriers such as religious and cultural habits. Involving women from different socio-cultural backgrounds will help to develop digital mobility services and facilitate a more equal transport offer.







García-Jiménez, E.; Poveda-Reyes, S.; Molero, G.D.; Santarremigia, F.E.; Gorrini, A.; Hail, Y.; Ababio-Donkor, A.; Leva, M.C.; Mauriello, F. Methodology for Gender Analysis in Transport: Factors with Influence in Women’s Inclusion as Professionals and Users of Transport Infrastructures. Sustainability 2020, 12, 3656.https://zenodo.org/record/3823830/files/sustainability-12-03656-published%20version.pdf?download=1 

Kawgan-Kagan, I.; Popp, M. Sustainability and gender: A mixed-method analysis of urban women’s mode choice with particular consideration of e-carsharing. Transp. Res. Procedia 2018, 31, 146–159.