In the context of INDIMO the term ethnic minorities includes all people who permanently live in a multi-ethnic community. Cultural identity is an important factor influencing individual needs, travel choices, and travel distance. Depending on the size and typology of the built context, on the local multi-cultural mix and on the level of social cohesion, the severity of social exclusion may strongly vary. National and local policies are rarely able to provide equal access to social and economic opportunities and resources to minorities, and for transport services the same applies.
People whose religious or cultural beliefs limit their interaction with the social, physical or digital environment, especially when they are abroad or find themselves in an unfriendly or unfamiliar context also count as ethnic minorities. For people belonging to this category, barriers to the use of digital (and non-digital) mobility services can be related with the perceived fear of victimization while travelling, which influences travel needs and behaviour. Such fear can be related to real traumatic experiences or by actual insecurity due to contextual factors. When deciding about their mode choices —-and which routes to select- ethnic minorities must consider all odds. In particular, women and older people belonging to this group are those most affected by the lack of services addressing their need for personal safety.
Digital mobility services oftentimes do not target this group’s needs, therefore potential users do not receive paramount information, causing higher isolation and fragmentation of the community.