people living in peri-urban or rural areas
In the context of INDIMO this group represents all the people who encounter barriers to digital mobility services due to geographic conditions with poor access to transport infrastructure and/or to reliable digital network connections. In fact the overall digital connectivity, from the peri-urban areas towards rural areas the level of service tend to decline. This group not only includes those who permanently dwell in such areas, but also those who temporarily choose to live and/or work far from central areas for some reason.
It has to be noted that concerning needs and requirements there are differences among people living in peri-urban areas or rural areas. In terms of transport services peri-urban areas are usually poorly served by short-haul sharing mobility services and delivery services while accessibility to long-haul or mass-transit transport is quite accessible. Rural areas are poorly served by all transport services and the only available digital mobility services are mostly car-pooling services and route planners.
(Universidade NOVA de Lisboa,2019)Implications of Mobility as a Service (MaaS) in Urban and Rural Environments: Emerging Research and Opportunities (page 145)