Lower income people
Lower income people not only have difficulties keeping pace with innovative products, such as last generation smartphones since they are too expensive for them. They may also have no access to cashless payment methods as they are not eligible for bank account and/or credit/debit cards.
Speaking about services offering individual or on-demand transport options, they are generally more expensive (€/km) than the public transport options. Applications are free of charge, yet the actual use oftentimes only allows for cashless payments. As an example, in areas where mass transit offer is poor or the person needs a car trunk, there are no affordable options.
It has to be mentioned that in most countries lower income people do not have equal access to education, fair living conditions and social participation. That makes it even more difficult for them to take advantage of digital mobility services.